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MARCH 18, 2021 BY SARAOGI




Do you know?

Globally, infertility is related to females in 1/3rd of the cases and male-factors in 1/3rd of the patients. Both male and female infertility factors in the remaining 1/3rd cases.


What is Infertility?

Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term after 12 months of trying to conceive.

At an infertility clinic or IVF Centre in Mumbai, the doctor will conduct a physical examination of both partners to determine their general state of health and examine physical ailments that may be causing infertility.

Generally, both partners are interviewed about their sexual practices to determine whether intercourse is taking place properly for conception.


What are the Causes of Infertility in Women?

  • Ovulation disorders
  • Uterus abnormalities
  • Damage to the fallopian tubes
  • Endometriosis

What are the Causes of Infertility in Men?

  • Hormonal or sexual disorders
  • Abnormal production of sperms
  • Genetic conditions

How is Infertility Diagnosed in Women?

  • Medical and sexual history of partners
  • Physical examination
  • Ovulation and ovarian reserve testing
  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Hormone testing
  • In rare cases, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, or genetic testing can be done.

The first step in testing for a woman is to find out if she is ovulating each month. There are various methods to do this; for example, she can track changes in her morning body temperature and cervical mucus texture. Another tool is a home ovulation test kit; it checks ovulation. It can also be done in the doctor's office using blood tests for hormone levels or ultrasound for imaging ovaries.

Some female tests include a Hysterosalpingogram, an X-ray of the fallopian tubes and uterus. It involves injecting a dye that highlights the fallopian tubes. It helps examine whether the tubes are open and shows the uterus's shape. Laparoscopy examines the fallopian tubes and other female organs for disease.


How is Infertility Diagnosed in Men?

  • Medical and sexual history of partners
  • Physical examination
  • Male fertility tests:
    1. Semen analysis
    2. Hormone testing
    3. Ultrasound (TRUS)
    4. Scrotal Doppler
    5. Genetic testing
    6. Testicular biopsy

For a man, testing typically begins with the semen test to look at the number, shape, and movement of sperm. Depending on the test results, various treatments can be recommended.


Can Infertility be Treated?

In most cases, infertility can be successfully treated based on:

  • Age
  • Cause
  • Duration of infertility

How is Infertility Treated?

Female infertility can be treated with:

  • Medications to boost fertility
  • Ovulation induction to induce ovulation in females
  • Surgical procedures

Surgical Options for Women

To restore fertility:

  • Restorative procedures may be done using laparoscopic or hysteroscopic, or open surgery.
  • Tubal surgeries
  • Myomectomy

To retrieve eggs:Transvaginal ultrasound aspiration

Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART)- A group of fertility procedures to help you get pregnant.

85% to 90 % of infertility cases are treated with drugs or surgery. Fertility medications stimulate the ovaries to ripen and release eggs. Gynaecologists perform tuboplasty in the case of obstructed fallopian tubes.

Male infertility can be treated with:

  • Medications to improve sperm count
  • Surgeries or corrective procedures

Surgical Options for Men:

To restore fertility:

  • Varicocele surgery
  • Vasovasostomy
  • Vasoepididymostomy
  • Trans-urethral Resection of Ejaculatory Duct (TURED)

To extract sperms:

Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)- To extract sperms from the male reproductive organ.


What are the Types of ART?

Intrauterine insemination (IUI):

It involves the transfer of sperm into the woman's uterus. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is done in couples where women have blocked or absent fallopian tubes or where men have low sperm counts.

In-vitro Fertilization (IVF):

IVF treatment in Mumbai involves the fertilization of an egg with sperm using natural selection in the lab. In vitro fertilization, IVF offers a chance to parenthood to couples who have no hope of having a biologically related baby. It involves surgical removal of the eggs from the ovary and mixing them with sperms outside the body in a petri dish in a lab.

After about 40 hours, the IVF specialist in Mumbai examines the eggs to check if sperms have fertilized them. These fertilized eggs (embryos) are then placed in the woman's uterus, bypassing the fallopian tubes.

In IVF, there are many variations; these include the following:

Use of donor eggs or sperm in IVF

It happens when a couple's eggs or sperms are unusable or have to avoid passing on a genetic disease to their child.

Intra-cytoplasmic injection (ICSI):

It is the fertilization of an egg with sperm using manual selection in the lab. In ICSI, the specialist injects a single sperm directly into an egg. The doctor then places the fertilized egg in the woman's uterus as in IVF.

Donor insemination:

It involves artificially inseminating a woman with donor sperm.

Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT):

It involves removing eggs from the woman and then placing the fertilized eggs in the woman's fallopian tubes rather than the uterus.

Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)

It involves removing eggs from the woman and placing them in one of the fallopian tubes with the man's sperm. It allows fertilization to take place inside the woman's body.


Other assisted reproductive technologies:

  • Assisted hatching
  • Fertility preservation
  • Cryopreservation of sperms, eggs, and reproductive tissue
  • Frozen embryo transfer

But is just a single visit to the IVF clinic in Mumbai sufficient to conceive? Let us find out the success rates of ART treatments.


ART- Success rates

The success rate of ART mainly depends on the woman's age.

The average success rate of ART in women is:

  • 40-50% in women below 35 years
  • 35% in women between 35-37 years
  • 25% in women between 38-40 years
  • 15% in women between 41-42 years
  • 7% in women greater than 43 years

Fertility Tips

Infertility can be prevented by:

  • Having regular intercourse
  • Maintaining healthy personal habits
  • Maintaining healthy body weight
  • Exercising regularly
  • Avoiding exposure to toxins
  • Avoiding smoking and alcoholic drinks
  • Limiting the intake of caffeine

With the latest advances in fertility treatments, having a baby is now easy.